XML technologies explained

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There is so much technology jargon in the world of XML that it’s very difficult to learn this metalanguage without constantly googling different terms that we meet when starting, this page will give you a short explanation of the terms you might encounter.

A Resource is “something somewhere” on the device you are using or somewhere in the world, not always on the internet.The most common resources you will use are documents (plain text, HTML, XML, PDF, Microsoft Word), images, videos, databases etc.

A URI is a Unique Resource Identifier, which means a locator, a name or both. It is a string that uniquely identifies a resource. It composed of a short string called a Scheme followed by a scheme-specific identifying information. Each URI is either a URN or URL.

A URN is a A Unique Resource Name, is the URI that names the resource but gives no information about where it is located, an example for this is an ISBN.

A URL is a Unique Resource Location, which gives the resource location so that it can be retrieved. Popular XML schemes include HTTP and HTTPS and FTP. The URL for the page you’re reading this is http://communityknowledgebase.com/xml-technologies-explained/.

HTML is HyperText Markup Language, the language of the internet it’s what allows the displaying of web pages.

HTTP is HyperText Transfer Protocol, is the protocol used to retrieve web pages and other resources.

XML is eXtensible Markup Language, it is a metalanguage used to define, organize and describe data in in XML files. It is used by many different applications for displaying and/or exchanging data.

XHTML is a stricter version of HTML which conforms to the XML standards and through it has access to XML Applications, XHTML document being also XML documents. In other word XHTML documents respect the same rules XML documents do, syntax and all, a great alliance.

A DTD is a Document Type Definition, it defines the structure and the legal elements and attributes of an XML document. It is associated with an XML document to constrain what kinds of things can occur in it – e.g. “There may be zero or more description elements inside each country element, and each one contains text”.

An XML schema is a description of a type of XML document, commonly known as XML Schema Definition (XSD). XML schema defines the elements, attributes and data types. Schema element supports Namespaces. It is similar to a database schema that describes the data in a database.

The DOM is the Document Object Model is a programming interface for HTML and XML documents. It defines the way a document can be accessed and manipulated.

SAX is the Simple API for XML, an event-driven interface, an event-based API for XML parsing, often used when the DOM approach of reading the whole parsed document into memory at once would be too resource-heavy.

XPath (XML Path Language) is a query language for selecting nodes from an XML document. XPath can be used to navigate through elements and attributes in an XML document.

XLink is used to create hyperlinks in/within XML documents. A “simple” link is similar to the common link on an HTML page that points to another Web page or to a resource to download. An “extended” link defines a relationship between two or more documents.

XPointer was later added to XPath, It enables internal structures to be referenced rather than just the entire page.

XSLT is XML Stylesheet Language Transformations (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations). It is actually a rich and complex language for specifying arbitrary transformations on XML documents

CSS is Cascading Style Sheets – stylesheet language widely used with HTML to specify display aspects from color to spacing and font size.

SOAP is the Simple Object Access Protocol, A message-based protocol based on XML for accessing services on the Web. It uses the XML syntax to send text commands across the Internet using HTTP.

WSDL is the Web Services Definition Language, a formal notation for describing the requests that can be made of a SOAP server and what responses can be expected.

UDDI – Universal Description, Discovery and Integration.